- The Online Reference Guide to World War II German Helmets 1933-1945

    Collector Topics:  Liner Systems

Photo:  Second Pattern Zinc M1931 Liner.

Liner Development

The liner band is the innermost part of the helmet and the portion to which the leather liner was attached. As an entire unit, the liner that was fitted inside a World War II German combat helmet consisted of two metal bands and an eight or nine finger leather liner and drawstring. The inside of the liner band was a thin pliable sheet of metal to which a series of flat metal bars were riveted. These metal bars acted as springs when interlocked to the thicker outer band of metal.

Riveted to the outside of the liner band were two flat metal retainers which held a small "D" ring to which the chinstrap was attached. One "D" ring was fastened on each side of the helmet liner about equal to where the ear was located when worn.  The chinstrap attachment was constructed in such a way that the "D" ring could swing from front to back to allow the wearer the ability to adjust the chinstrap's position under the chin.  This also allowed the chinstrap to be placed on top of the helmet's visor when not worn under the chin.

Original liner bands were marked in three different locations. The first consisted of a single two digit stamp on the inside front of the inner liner band. This number represented the size of the leather attachment (and head size) of the wearer in metric equivalents (centimeters). On the outer left side of the liner band the shell size of the helmet and the leather size was stamped into the metal.  For example, a helmet manufactured with a 64 cm circumference would be marked with "64 n.A. 57" indicating that the liner band could accommodate a size 64 shell for a wearer with a 57 cm head size. The "n.A" was a designation indicating "Neue Art" or "New Model." 

On the outer right side of the liner band the manufacturer's name, location, and date of production were placed.  After 1942 the name of the company was omitted in favor of the required National Business Number (Reichsbetreibsnummer-RBNr.).  This number served as an eight-digit serial code designed to prevent Allied intelligence from locating (and bombing from the air) the manufacturing facilities.  Some liners can be found bearing no marks, but these are generally those that have had shallow stampings resulting in the overall appearance that no marks were placed on the liner to begin with.


Each section of is divided into separate Information Tracks that outline important details, facts, and historical notes pertaining to steel helmets used by the German Armed Forces during World War II.  

Information Tracks are organized by subject matter and their content is directly related to the service arm or organization to which each topic is related.  Topic areas that bridge one subject matter to another are cross linked within each Information Track.

This Information Track provides historical facts pertaining to liner systems used in German helmets from 1933-1945.  Individual links related to this subject are outlined below.

    Liner Systems Main Topics

Civic Model Helmet Liners

Combat Helmet Liners

  • M1927

  • M1931 - First Pattern Aluminum

  • M1931 - Second Pattern Zinc

Fallschirmjäger Liners

Leather Markings

Liner Manufacturers and RBNr.'s

Liner Retaining Rivets

    Collector Topics




Dome Stamps

Factory Production

Foreign Use

Helmet History

Liner Systems


Fakes and Reproductions

Rare and Unusual

Appraisals  - The Online Reference Guide to World War II German Helmets 1933-1945

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